- 14th century - 19th century
Office of the Secretary of the Republic
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Office of the Secretary of the Republic
The series contains state letters and instructions to Ragusan ambassadors, tribute ambassadors, consuls, administrators of Dubrovnik consulates, charges d’affairs, and merchants in the cities of the Ottoman Empire in the period from the middle of the 14th to the beginning of the 19th century. The cities that are mostly referred to in the series are: Istanbul, Jedrene, Belgrade, Vlora, Volos, Alexandria, Banja Luka, Sarajevo, Travnik, Mostar and Pljevlja. The series also includes letters from the authorities of the Dubrovnik Republic to various Ottoman dignitaries and officials, from Grand Viziers in Istanbul to kadis in the Dubrovnik neighbourhood.
The series is very important for the research of the history of the Jewish people in the Ottoman Empire, as well as for any attempted analysis of their cooperation with the Jews from the Republic. The series contains state letters to the consuls of the Republic in Vlora, who were Jewish (16th and 17th centuries). The following names of the consuls are referenced: Isach Trincha, who is only referenced to in one letter (vol. 20, f. 15v), Jacob Coduto, Daniel Coduto, Zacharia Graziano, Angiolo Coduto (vol. 28-34, 37, 42-45, 47-50). In addition to the names previously mentioned, there are several other Vlora Jews that are mentioned in the documents from the 16th century. The series also contains several letters from the authorities of the Republic to their tribute ambassadors, in which there are references to Gracia Mendes. In 1552, she travelled to Istanbul via Dubrovnik. The data shows that she conducted her business from Istanbul, using the port of Dubrovnik to trade with Western countries till she died. The ambassadors of the Republic would regularly visit her and bring her letters from the authorities. According to the records, she would lend money to the ambassadors and the authorities of the Republic would then reimburse the money to her representatives in Dubrovnik, Isaac Ergas and Abner Alfarin (vol. 26-29). Other Istanbul Jews also lent money to Dubrovnik tax collectors, and the authorities would then reimburse it to their relatives in Dubrovnik. For example, in 1576, Samuel Ergas wrote a letter of recommendation to two Jews from Istanbul, Judi Algasi and Samuel Celef, asking them to lend money to the emissaries of the Republic if that was deemed necessary (vol. 33, f. 67v). Dubrovnik merchants owned real estate in some Ottoman cities and would often rent it, especially in Sofia, to Jewish merchants. Related to this fact, there are several references to conflicts that occurred among those merchants. Even though the series provides evidence to some other conflicts in which Jewish merchants were involved, it also provides evidence of different forms of successful cooperation with Jewish merchants. The authorities of the Dubrovnik Republic evidently cooperated with Jewish merchants who were influential at the sultan's court (e.g., vol. 31, ff. 25v-26v). One of those merchants, Conort, whose name is not referenced in this series, worked in the 80s of the 18th century as a dragoman of Dubrovnik ambassadors at the Sublime Porte (vol. 103, ff. 113v, 121v).
The series contains letters sent by the authorities of the Republic in the 18th century primarily to the Ottoman authorities in the neighbourhood of the Republic.
There are very few documents in which Jewish people are referenced to in the series. For example, the records show that in 1757 Ragusan authorities wrote to the governor of the Bosnian eyalet about a certain Jew by the name of Samuel who had to pay some customs duties to the authorities, and about another Dubrovnik Jew, Hai Tolentino, who was imprisoned by the authorities of the Republic because of his debts to Ottoman merchants (vol. 4, ff. 97, 122, 123).
The series contains the drafts of letters and instructions of the authorities of the Republic to Dubrovnik emissaries, tribute ambassadors, consuls, administrators of Dubrovnik consulates, chargé d'affaires, or merchants in the cities of the Ottoman Empire. The preserved registers date from the middle of the 17th century to the 60s of the 18th century.
The series contains a small number of letters addressed to some Jewish people from Sarajevo, such as Abram Meramet, Abram Levi, and others (e.g., vol. 1, no. 25).
The series contains the correspondence between the authorities of the Dubrovnik Republic and Ottoman dignitaries and administrative officials from the neighbourhood of the Dubrovnik Republic in the period from between the 40s and the 70s of the 18th century.
There are very few references to Jews in the series, and the references found provide some insight into the connections between Dubrovnik and Bosnian Jews. For example, several Jewish merchants are listed in the inventories of foreign merchants who transported different goods to Dubrovnik (vol. 1, no. 27, 28). Some Jewish people also appear in several letters that these merchants wrote. For example, a Bosnian Jew, Abram Pardo, wrote to his relatives in Dubrovnik and asked them for financial help because he had recently gotten married (vol. 2, no. 236). Joseph Danon from Travnik, on the other hand, wrote to Raphael Costantini and informed him of the important role of the Bosnian governor in the current Venetian-Dubrovnik conflict (vol. 1, no. 114).
Litterae et relationes comitum et capitaneorum territorii; Lettere e relazioni di conti e capitani del territorio (Letters and reports of rectors and captains who served in the territory of the Republic)
There is no information about any Jews in the series.
The series contains letters and reports written to the Dubrovnik authorities by the local counts and captains from the territory of the Republic of Dubrovnik in the 18th century.
The series contains letters from the authorities of the Republic to foreign rulers and other politicians, popes, and cardinals, as well as letters and instructions to Dubrovnik ambassadors, consuls, administrators of Dubrovnik consulates, charges d'affaires, and to merchants from different Western European countries and cities. Mostly referenced cities are those from the Apennine Peninsula such as Venice, Rome, Ancona, Naples, Genoa, Barletta, as well as other European cities (Vienna, London, Madrid, Paris) and the cities of Morocco, Tripoli (present-day Libya), Tunisia and Algeria. The documents in the series date from the 60s of the 16th century until the beginning of the 19th century.
The series is very important for the research of the history of converts and Jewish people of North Africa. It contains many letters sent by the authorities of the Republic to certain Jews, such as Abram Bussara, Raphael Jacob Bussara and Naftali Busnaco, who were administrators of the Dubrovnik Consulate in Algeria (vols. 76-78, 89, 90, 108, 109, 119, 125-127, 129 -131, 133-137; 1763, 1770, 1778, 1779, 1790-1792, 1794-1802). Some letters of the authorities of the Republic to the Dubrovnik consul in Vlora, Jacob Coduto can also be also found in this series (vol. 1, 2). There are other references to Jews in state letters to popes, cardinals, and Dubrovnik diplomatic representatives in Rome. Jewish physicians, who had their practice in Dubrovnik in the 16th century, are the primary topic of these letters. The data indicate that this was the reason why the Holy See would protest to the authorities of the Republic (i.e., vol. 4, ff. 242-245v). Ragusan authorities had to justify themselves to the Holy See also because of converts who returned in Dubrovnik to their original faith, as well as because of Christian maids who served in Jewish families (i.e., vol. 3, ff. 157-157v).
There is no mention of Jews in the series.
The series contains drafts of letters from the authorities of the Republic to foreign rulers and other politicians, as well as drafts of letters and instructions to Dubrovnik ambassadors, consuls, administrators of consulates of the Republic, charge d’affairs, and merchants in the countries and cities of Western Europe. These cities are mostly cities of the Apennine Peninsula, some Dalmatian cities under Venetian rule, as well as some local territories of the Dubrovnik Republic. The documents of the series date from the 60s of the 17th century to the mid-18th century.
The series contains various documents such as statements proving kinship, legal incapacity, certificates of residence, certificates of citizenship in the Dubrovnik Republic, or certificates issued to sea captains in which it was stated that they, their crew, and their ships had withstood the prescribed quarantine, etc. The registers of the series date from the early 20s of the 17th century to the beginning of the 19th century.
There are not many references to Jewish people in this series. The documents in the series are primarily certificates of citizenship, i.e., documents that state the identity of a bearer, as an identity card or passport, issued by the Dubrovnik Republic to Jewish people that were either born in Dubrovnik or permanently resided there. The fonds contains approximately 15 of similar documents issued to members of Jewish families from the Republic such as Cittanova, Cohen, Janni, Levi Mandolfo, Luzzena, Pardo, Russi, Terni, Vitali (i.e., vol. 2, f. 80v).