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Commandamenta (Decrees)

There are no references to Jewish people in the series.
The series consists of decrees made by the Rector in Slano from the end of the 15th century to the end of the 17th century and at the beginning of the 19th century. Most of these documents are related to evidentiary and court proceedings at the Conciliation Court.

Commandamenta (Decrees)

There are no references to Jews in the series.
The series mainly consists of various lawsuits and evidentiary proceedings for court investigations in the field of civil law, which were registered at the Chancellery in Ston from the middle of the 15th century to the end of the 17th century.

Commandamenta et sententiae navigationis; Commandamenti e sentenze della navigazione (Lawsuits and judgments in maritime affairs)

The series contains civil lawsuits, investigations and judgments related to maritime affairs, and covers the period from the 60s of the 18th centuries to the early 19th century. The topics of these of lawsuits are diverse: various types of debts (most often irregular repayments or terminations of maritime loan repayment), disagreements over the payment of crew salaries, damage to merchandise, loss of shipping books, suspicions of misrepresentation of ship maintenance costs, avoidance of maritime insurance payment after shipwreck, etc.

The series contains a considerable amount of information about Jews, which is deemed relevant for researching the involvement of Ragusan Jews in maritime affairs during the 18th century. Most references indicate Jews who were members of some Ragusan Jewish families such as Ambonetti, Cittanova, Levi Mandolfo, Luzzena, Pardo, Terni, Tolentino, Venturra. These Jews are in most cases referenced as providers of so-called maritime loans who filed a lawsuit against those who had borrowed the money from them (e.g., vol. 3, f. 259c). The loans referenced in the series were usually taken by sea captains who wanted to purchase various equipment for their ships. In such a case, and as a guarantee for the regular payment of the loan, the sea captains would sign a bill of exchange by pledging the ship, equipment or shares in that ship (if they owned any of them). Agreements on maritime loans are registered in the fonds Diversa Notariae Fund (HR-DADU-9) and in the series Diversa de Foris (HR-DADU-30.1) and Diversa navigationis (HR-DADU-56.9). In this series, Ragusan Jews sometimes appear as legal representatives of defendants and sometimes as members of insurance companies. The series also records the text of an oath that was taken by the Jews during their testimonies. This specific oath was taken at the request of the French authorities in 1810 by Sabato Vita Levi Mandolfo (vol. 11, ff. 294v-295v).

Consulatus; Consolati (Consulates of the Dubrovnik Republic)

  • HR-DADU-53
  • Fonds
  • 16th century - 19th century

The books of this fonds are mainly from the second half of the 18th century. The fonds primarily contains books kept by the Office for Maritime Affairs and those kept by the Office for Consulates in the Ottoman Empire. The documents in the books contain lists of accepted and rejected expenses of consulates in Alexandria, Arta, Chania (Canea), Istanbul, Smyrna and Thessaloniki, a book of Senate decisions on consulates in the Ottoman Empire, a book with a list of Dubrovnik consulates and consuls and a book of letters written by the consuls to the authorities of the Republic. The collection also includes books that do not belong to this fonds, such as the expenditure lists of the ambassadors of the Republic in Istanbul and in Belgrade (17th century). The fonds also contains one expenditure list of a Ragusan ambassador in Vienna (1772), and one travelogue of an ambassador in Istanbul (1792), as well as a list of Ragusan trade intermediaries (sensali) (1572-1575).

Two volumes of the fonds are important for researching the cooperation of Jewish population with the Dubrovnik Republic. Volume 1, entitled Tasse per sansaria imposte à Sensali pubblici dell 'anno 1572-1575, shows that 72 official trade intermediaries operated in Dubrovnik during this period. Among them there were approximately twenty Jews, from Jewish families such Adaroch, Barochas, Berubi, Celebi, Chatinela, Cohen, Crispin, Flores, Gabai, Gratiano, Jachar, Mazza, Moscato, Nasin, Nahem, Oef, Pardo, Sabatai, Trincha and Zafarana. A particularly significant name referenced in the fonds is the name of Isaia Coen, a nephew of Didacus Pyrrhus (vol. 1, f. 32). The data also contain names of the merchants who used the services of trade intermediaries. Volume 2, entitled Consolati nationali 1752-1796, contains a list of Dubrovnik consulates and consuls at the time. Among them there are members of Jewish families Bussara and Busnaco, who served as administrators (amministratori) of the Dubrovnik consulate in Algeria (vol. 2, f. 77).

Office for Maritime Affairs

Copia litterarum diversarum; Copia lettere diverse (Copies of various state letters)

The series contains letters sent by the authorities of the Republic in the 18th century primarily to the Ottoman authorities in the neighbourhood of the Republic.

There are very few documents in which Jewish people are referenced to in the series. For example, the records show that in 1757 Ragusan authorities wrote to the governor of the Bosnian eyalet about a certain Jew by the name of Samuel who had to pay some customs duties to the authorities, and about another Dubrovnik Jew, Hai Tolentino, who was imprisoned by the authorities of the Republic because of his debts to Ottoman merchants (vol. 4, ff. 97, 122, 123).

Criminalia (Criminal convictions)

  • HR-DADU-23
  • Fonds
  • 15th century - 19th century

The fonds consists of registers of criminal convictions of the Criminal Court (established in 1459) and the accompanying alphabetical indexes and covers the period from the 15th century to the beginning of the 19th century. Criminal convictions reached after 1667 have been fully preserved, and those of earlier times have been preserved partially. Usually, at the end of each conviction there is a reference code of the corresponding lawsuit and investigation procedure, which were entered in the registers of Lamenta Criminalia (HR-DADU-20) and Lamenta de criminali (HR-DADU-21). As a result, it is much easier to get information about complete court proceedings: from filing a lawsuit to reaching a judgement. It is a characteristic of the Dubrovnik Criminal Court that it rarely rendered judgements, most likely because most disputes ended in conciliation of the warring parties.

The fact that the Criminal Court rarely rendered judegements is also visible in cases involving Jewish people. An analysis of criminal cases in which Jews appear either in the role of prosecutors or defendants has provided the following outcome: the percentage of convictions in lawsuits where Jews would sue other Jews and the percentage in lawsuits where Jews would sue other non-Jewish citizens is almost identical (7.64% and 7.83%). The percentage of final verdicts in lawsuits of non-Jewish citizens against Jews is slightly higher (10.52%). As expected, the highest percentage of verdicts is in lawsuits rendered ex officio (27.90%). In most verdicts, the sentence was imprisonment or a fine and the convict often had the right to choose between two options. In addition to some prison sentences and fines, there is also a reference to one penal labour case, several cases of corporal punishments, or cases of public humiliation, which were reached in cases of theft and fornication (e.g., vol. 5, f. 119). In the history of the Dubrovnik Republic, there is only one record to death penalty pronounced to Jewish people. This is the case of a convert named Benvenisti Nasci (Isaac, the son of Abraham) from Ferrara, a cousin of the famous Joseph Nassi, who was sentenced to death in 1571 for murder of a convert Menachem Maraz (vol. 20, ff. 90, 90v). The fonds mostly references to some members of Dubrovnik Jewish families such as Ambonetti, Angeli, Ascoli, Asser, Baraffael, Bueno, Campos, Cohen, Costantini, Fermo, Forte, Janni, Levi, Levi Mandolfo, Luzzena, Maestro, Pardo, Penso, Russo, Terni, Tolentino, Valenzin, Vitali, Volterra.

Chancellery and the Judicial Office of the Dubrovnik Republic

Custodiae et armamentum; Guardie ed armamento (Guards and weaponry)

  • HR-DADU-47
  • Fonds
  • 16th century - 19th century

There are no references to Jewish people in the fonds.
The documents of the fonds consist of an inventory of weaponry and ammunition, a list of soldiers, a list of foreigners in the Dubrovnik military service (barabanti), some documents with cost estimates for purchase of weaponry, payment of military salaries, or maintenance of fortifications and warships. The registers cover the period from the 16th century to the beginning of the 19th century.

Guards Proveditori

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